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Copertina del libro di Lella di Marco - I saperi delle donne: sguardi e cura dei corpi nei cicli vitali


Vol. 33 - Genetics and orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics


64 pages - 200 color illustrations

ISBN 978-88-7572-135-0


Prezzo di copertina 45,00 €


42,75 €

The Authors


The Authors

Cristina Grippaudo, DDS, MS

Associated Professor of Dentistry and Chairman of Post graduate School in Orthodontics Catholic University of Sacred Heart Rome - Italy

Anna Lucia Greco, DDS

Private Practice

Simone Sferra, DDS

Private Practice

Francesco Danilo Tiziano, MD, MS

Assistant Professor, Institute of Medical Genetics, Catholic University of Sacred Heart Rome - Italy


In the 50’s in Italy Orthodontics began in a pioneering fashion, with some leaders such as Prof. ri E. Muzi, G. May, O. Hoffer, and has subsequently developed: with the first Italian Orthodontic Study Group (G.I.S.O. – 1967 Gruppo Italiano Studio Ortodonzia), the Italian Orthodontic Society (S.I.D.O. – 1968 Società Italiana Di Ortodonzia), the first Orthodontic Specialization School (Cagliari, 1973) and gradually others until specific University Posts, Specialization Courses and Masters and going from few pioneers to a few thousand professionals. From this the opportunity of this book series in which every volume is monographic and varies in length according to the subject matter.

We have tried to leave large amount space to iconography in order to facilitate its use as an atlas-text and promote its practical professional use. The always concise text has been drawn up with maximum scientific and bibliographic accuracy and with an educational, logical and worthy setting. Due to its easy consultation the user can have the maximum advantages, in an attempt to make learning in this field easier and simpler.

With great satisfaction five years ago the book series has reached its 25th issue, speeding towards new and fast goals, unexpected when we shyly started with number 1 in the distant 1996.

Credit certainly due to all the Italian Orthodontic University schools and private pacticioners of proven experience, that have readily and enthusiastically adhered to the initiative enriching it in all these years with highly significant and important monographs in which their efforts went into giving the best results in their specific branch and in a book series. The proof is the wide subscription and satisfaction consensus from the readers, accurate reviews and the always positive approval of main periodicals of the field.

Our goal will therefore be to further improve the selection level of the single subjects and the editor’s contribution to further improve the graphics and the extension, always with the outlook of offering practical texts with an easy and evident clinical application for the user which at the same time cover the particular subject thoroughly.

Number 32 of the Book Series has been enriched by an extraordinary occurrence: it was simultaneously published in English, thanks to the foresight and courage of our Editor Alfredo Martina.

From now onwards it will be our task to invite the best foreign schools to contribute to the book series and at the same time spread abroad the worth of research in the Italian Orthodontic Schools.

Now, with number 33, we have the honor to disclose a contribution that to many will seem futuristic, and that is instead already a milestone in the diagnostic and therapeutic planning orthodontic branches.

The title “Genetics and Orthodontics” constitutes the new goal that firstly the specialization schools and then gradually the future young specialists all have to tend to.

We owe the opportunity and satisfaction to disclose in this monograph, coordinated by the Prof.ssa Cristina Grippaudo and her collaborators Dr.i Greco, Sferra and Tiziano, the best of their research activity due to the insight, constancy and perseverance of Prof. Roberto Deli and the school he directs at the Università Cattolica in Rome.

For over 25 years Prof. Roberto Deli has carried out all his dynamic research activity towards the most difficult, complex and demanding part for the interpretation of modern and future orthodontic gnatology. Firstly he dedicated most of his research to a careful and meticulous determination of craniofacial growth, engaging collaborations with the best international schools from Petrovic to numerous other researchers, to carry on towards the newer and still little known genetic component.

The clear, precise and well documented report on the evolution of this complex discipline is due to the intense research activity of Prof.ssa Cristina Grippaudo and her collaborators.

Through a coordinated series of chapters the authors bring us to understand the meaning and then arrive at possible clinical application in daily practice in the light of these decades of research.

In the initial part the actual importance of Genetic study in the orthodontic field is explained, where it is already well outlined how skeletal maloclusions have a different genetic origin and that the result of orthodontic therapies also depends on the different genetic characteristics of the individual.

It is also underlined how in Orthodontic, thanks to molecular biology, we have begun to understand via research the biological action of the respective therapy.

A wide range presentation on the history of genetics follows, with particular reference to DNA, the “Human Genome” project, the genotype-phenotype relationship, up to the presentation of all data currently available on genetic research on face formation, collected in the “COGENE” project, also with a broad examination on some factors that concern the individual response to orthodontic therapy, to then present the various fields of application of clinical genetics such as genetic tests, genetic therapy, pharmacogenomics, mechanogenomics, to conclude with research on stem cells.

Two excellent chapters are dedicated to genetic craniofacial growth determinants during embryonic and postnatal life.
They are essential chapters because they help us understand the role of genetics in craniofacial dysmorphisms, in disorders of dental morphogenesis, in research on possibilities of mandibular advancement, its form and its growth rotation.
Research on functional orthodontic therapy, comparing results between patients which are genetically favored or not favored, then follows.
These specific clinical cases excellently and thoroughly recorded, will be of great assistance to the specialist that understands well the importance and opportunity of an in-depth genetic study in every subject.

The monograph concludes with a presentation of molecular biology of dental movements, from the study of osteogenesis in the area of tension, to bone resorption in the pressure area, and the analysis of corresponding markers, to finish with the links to corticomies and finally with pharmacological interactions. We refer to the excellent preface of Prof. Ennio Giannì and the afterword of Prof. Roberto Deli where the importance that an accurate study of Genetics will have from now on in both the diagnostic prognostic phase and in the subsequent therapeutic phase is extensively and thoroughly described.

This monograph also extensively reminds us how only with an accurate and in-depth study in the whole field of medicine and biology it will be possible to exploit these new genetic researches in our specialist field.

Another thank you and an appreciation to Editor Alfredo Martina for inexhaustible energy and enthusiasm put into his work that he continues to lavish in order to further improve the book series in its typographic and iconographic layout and for always having been close to us with his wisdom in sensible moments or when taking difficult decisions.

Prof. Alberto Caprioglio
Associate Professor and Chairman
Department of Orthodontics
University of Insubria

Prof. Damaso Caprioglio
Professor and Former Chairman
Department of Orthodontics
University of Parma


The deciphering of the human genome is a major breakthrough in human knowledge. Orthodontics, an exquisitely medical discipline, is no exception to this categorical imperative on the subject of critical review of the genesis, of the biological evolution and the corrective treatment of maxillofacial bones disharmony.

And this is precisely the intrinsic meaning of this monograph, which puts in the spotlight the close relationship between genetics and Orthodontics. These new achievements are fascinating not only in the specialized orthognatodontic field, but also in the organismic, because of the relations with organs apparently not connected with the stomatognathic system. To understand the significance of these issues not only from a specialists point of view but also of a medical one it’s enough to think about the psychological, aesthetic and metabolic correlations in an organism.

After an interesting historical “excursus”, the modern concept of interpretation of the dysgnathia, intended as a phenotypic manifestation of the interaction between the genomic component and the environmental, peristatic factors, is masterfully outlined.

Of particular interest is the chapter about “Growth centers” of maxillo-facial dynamic evolution: the focus in particular is on three-dimensional rotational movements, intended as secondary growth centers that modulate the movement of pre-and post-mandibular rotation.
The other aspect, brought forth in great detail, concerns dental kinematics.

The mechanical conception of the levers principles is obsolete: molecular biology, beyond any reasonable doubt, identifies the application of orthodontic forces as an initial factor in dental kinematics. The evolution and ultimate fate is modulated by the response of the DNA of the cells of the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone.

A special mention deserves the last chapter, that categorizes the relationship between the rate of tooth movement and corticotomy. The authors, with much wisdom, focus on the personalization of growth processes: biological evolution of tooth movement and the restoration of tissue homeostasis, in fact, are the prerogativeof the genome and the periodontal structures. The increased rate of tooth movement following corticotomy, remains an open problem in the literature.

The monograph is rich in doctrine and clinical experience: it is a cornerstone of new knowledge and, at the the same time, an invaluable contribution that enriches the specialist literature. The exposition is clear and logical; the iconographic documentation highly educational.
“You can go wrong in many ways: there is only one way to do well (Aristotle).”

All my admiration goes to the authors who have been able to put the spotlight on a such actual issue.

The authors deal with a subject that is a guaranteed success: the monograph is a valuable cultural tool in advancing the knowledge of the Orthognatodontist, the Stomatologist, the Doctor, the Student and the Experts of the discipline.

Prof. Ennio Giannì
Professor Emeritus - University of Milan -
Faculty of Medicine and Surgery




Why is genetics interesting for clinical orthodontics?

Individual alterations of form and structure


The relationship between genetype and phenotype

Quantitative genetics

The variability of the phenotype conditioned by the environment

Does Genetics in Orthodontics mark the limit of orthodontic success?


What are homeotic genes?

How do homeotic genes function?

Why is it important to know them?


What happens as a result of mandibular advancement at the level of the condylar cartilage?

How does bone replace the cartilage in the condyle?

What triggers the onset of ossification of the condylar cartilage?

Is there a relationship between arch form and the shape of the mandible?

Mandibular growth: form and rotation


Theories of tooth movement

Signal molecules and metabolites in orthodontic tooth movement


Osteogenesis in the area of tension

Bone resorption in the area of pressure

Tooth movement and corticotomy

Dental movement and drug interactions